Tag Archives: New Towns

Developing new towns the Chinese way

This post Courtesy of the RTPI International Blog

In China, new town development emerged as a key urban development strategy at the beginning of the 21st century, particularly in mega-cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. They are large in scale, comprehensively planned in land use profile and urban functions, and showed city governments’ great enthusiasm to create distinctive and attractive urban landscapes to enhance local competitiveness.

New Town In Shanghai 2

Urban Investment & Development Corporations

In China, local government-affiliated Urban Investment and Development Corporations (UIDCs) play an essential part in propelling the new town boom. The name of UIDCs remind people of the Urban Development Corporations (UDCs) in the UK, but key differences exist.

The British UDCs were rooted within the neoliberal trends between the late 1970s and early 1980s, acting as agents to facilitate market-led regeneration by utilizing private capital. In contrast, the Chinese UIDCs were embedded in the contexts of China’s fiscal recentralization and land commodification in the 1990s.

Different from the UK, the Chinese local governments establish UIDCs to undertake primary land development and land conveyance on their behalf, and/or act as local financing arms to provide local governments a corporate platform to borrow from the market, thus the word investment is incorporated in their names.

British UDCs were rooted within the neoliberal trends between the late 1970s and early 1980s,.. while Chinese UIDCs were embedded in the contexts of China’s fiscal recentralization and land commodification in the 1990s.

UIDCs in China can be seen as government-backed, place-specific and project-based intermediary agent between the state and the market. They not merely act as institutions delivering large-scale urban (re)development projects, but also as prominent actors to enact and promote urban policy and landscape change and enable loyal allies of the local government to participate and influence the market through directing investment into selected locations.

Financially, UIDCs do not rely on private funding but on state endorsement of funding, particularly in the forms of land and credit. They are entrusted with the power of land development and conveyance, and could borrow from state-owned bank with land use right as collateral for loans, backed by local government.

Land commodification and price appreciation are their major source of income, which would in turn be used to finance infrastructure development. Thus, they act as the financial arm of the local government, enhance the state’s control over local space production through land monetarization, and manipulate urban forms as a tool in achieving state objectives.

Politically, the local government retains dominant control over UIDCs through personnel arrangement. For example, leaders of a UIDC could be former government cadres and could have concurrent appointments within a UIDC and government.

The case of Songjiang, Shanghai

In Songjiang New Town, Shanghai, the president of Songjiang New Town Development Corporation (SNTDC) also took the position of the party secretary of a Street Office (the lowest level of government administrative unit), and the local state can thus coordinate efficiently and act effectively, taking advantage of market intelligences, experiences and administrative power and resources. SNTDC could also obtain land at low price, and manipulate the statutory planning mechanism for its own economic gains.

UIDCs also act as local government’s administrative arm, helping to channel state economic policies to a specific place for implementation.

For example, SNTDC in Shanghai took charge of implementing the mega-project Thames Town as “artistic town, creative town, romantic town”, to enhance Shanghai’s position in the global cultural map. It also helps shape local community’s social value through actively engaging in residents’ social and cultural life via urban design, facility provision and community activities.

Key differences between China and UK

As can be seen, the Chinese UIDCs are different from the British UDCs in several aspects. Chinese UIDCs are affiliated and answer to local government, while British UDCs are centrally appointed agencies run by boards that primarily composed of private-sector members.

Under post-1980s free market reforms in many parts of Europe, newly established development institutions are often independent private or semi-private entities responding to market needs as the role of the state dwindles.

In post-socialist China, market is created and harnessed by the state through UIDCs which in turn enable local governments to participate in the market, appropriate land price appreciation, finance infrastructure, reward state allies, and invest in social spending. As such, they represent the expansion of state power institutionally, socio-spatially and economically.

The article is based on the 2018 RTPI Research Awards entry “Urban investment and development corporations, new town development and China’s local state restructuring – the case of Songjiang new town, Shanghai”. 2019 Awards are calling for entries. 

Guest blogs do not necessarily represent the views of the RTPI.

System Build Housing for the Future City

Urban Splash have been in the forefront of innovative design and urban development for decades. Manufactured / system build / modular housing, call it what you will, has to be the way forward.

House is precision-built to your specification in a factory, and craned into position on your street. Modern materials mean house is well-insulated and efficient to run. You can choose the size and internal format which is then delivered to site virtually ready to occupy.

Link

New Town Development Strategies CoverA big thank you to all those delegates who took part in the Town Planning Strategies workshop in Manila last week.

As promised I provide the PowerPoint presentations for your further information.

If you have any questions or would like to post your own ideas and experiences on this website then do please get in touch. This is an open forum so all contributions are gratefully received.

Links to the YouTube Videos used during the presentation are provided below:

Don’t Panic!

What is a Garden City?

The UK’s First Eco-Town

Smarter Cities

Future Cities

Bill Gates – Water from Waste

Garden city plans submitted for north-west Cardiff

New Town CardiffDevelopers have submitted detailed plans for a 21st century garden city in north west Cardiff which they say will deliver the homes and community the capital needs, help fuel economic growth and be a ‘model for sustainable living’.
Plasdŵr is the £2 billion development planned for north west Cardiff comprising around 7000 new homes plus shops, offices, schools, health centres, leisure centres, pubs and restaurants. It promises “world-class, sustainable, contemporary community living in a country park setting”.
The plan for Plasdŵr takes its inspiration from the enduring garden city movement, founded on the principles of “fresh air, sunlight, breathing room and playing room”.
According to developer, Wales-based Redrow Homes, it incorporates the ‘successful elements of the garden city movement and existing areas of Cardiff such as Pontcanna and Rhiwbina. Characterised by plentiful green spaces with four distinct centres, Plasdŵr will be set within 900 acres of open countryside bordering the existing communities of Fairwater, St Fagans, Danescourt and Radyr.
The proposed development underpins the local authority’s Local Development Plan (LDP) which identifies residential development in north west Cardiff as key to the city’s economic growth. The LDP has been approved by the Council and is currently being considered by an independent planning inspector on behalf of Welsh Government, with a decision expected in October 2015. If both the LDP and the Plasdŵr plans are approved, work is likely to begin at the beginning of 2016 and will last up to 20 years.

Read More HERE

Masdar City -The Sustainable City Of The Future – Has No One In It

masdar-cityAbu Dhabi’s $18 billion experiment in high-tech, low-resource living–was designed to be the world’s first large-scale carbon-neutral development. In 2012, we wrote: “So far, there are a number of finished buildings, including restaurants, a library, retail outlets, and a handful of structures at the onsite Masdar Institute, a graduate institute focused on sustainability, science, and alternative energy. This is only the start.” Julien Eymeri went recently, and found a much different story. Read his account and see his eerie video of an empty city.

READ MORE HERE

UK Experts to advise China on Sustainable Cities

chinacitiesplanningBritish planning experts are heading to China to advise on building cities that do not wreck the environment.
They will address mayors on the need to avoid Los Angeles-style sprawl by building dense cities with low-carbon buildings and good public transport.
Their visit follows a report warning that the road-based US model could make climate change impossible to contain.
Europe’s densely-populated cities, with strong public transport links, are held up as an example for China to follow.
The report by the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate said more than two billion extra people were expected in cities in the coming decades.

READ MORE HERE

Housing crisis needs 40 garden cities

Shelter-WEB

As many 40 new garden cities are needed to solve the housing crisis, according to planners and architects shortlisted for a prestigious prize.
The 2014 Wolfson Economics Prize this year looks at submissions on the question: “How would you deliver a new Garden City which is visionary, economically viable, and popular?”
Submissions from three of the five finalists suggest that 30 to 40 cities with between 10,000 and 50,000 homes are needed over the next 20 years.

Read more HERE

New Town Development Corporation for Ebbsfleet Garden City

ebbsfleet1Communities secretary Eric Pickles has outlined plans to set up a development corporation to co-ordinate future development of the proposed Ebbsfleet Garden City.
The body will be part of the DCLG’s plan to put local people at the heart of shaping future projects.
The DCLG said that the new corporation would assist local authorities with solving issues that have previously held Ebbsfleet back, as well as co-ordinating investment and ensuring development gets driven forward.

READ MORE HERE